NACE is the National Association of Corrosion Engineers, NACE publishes many documents related to corrosion control including NACE MR0175 which provides the requirements for metallic materials exposed to H2S in oil and gas production environments.
NACE MR0175 lists the requirements for carbon steels, low alloys and corrosion resistant alloys. For each material group, NACE MR0175 provides the following metallurgical requirements:
- Heat treatment
- HIC resistance etc
NACE MR0175 also provides the environment limits i.e, amount of H2S expressed as partial pressure, the maximum chloride content, pH range etc.
A NACE MR0175 compliant material (sometimes inaccurately referred to as NACE material or NACE piping) is a material that meets all the requirements of NACE MR0175 and can be used in H2S environments within the limits set by the standard.
NACE MR0172 / ISO 15156 from different aspects as below:
Definitions and means
Related equipment and products
Notifications before Purchasing Nace Pipe and Fittings
What is NACE
NACE was established since 1943, full name is The National Association of Corrosion Engineers. The founders were 11 engineers of anti-corrosion of pipeline industry.
Till now, NACE has been the largest organization to broadcast knowledge of anti-corrosion and improve skills of corrosion prevention.
In NACE standards, MR0175 is the standard of material requirements for H2S containing oil and gas production and equipment.
As a result, Nace pipe is used in H2S containing gas and oil transportation.
NACE MR0175 or ISO 15156 Scope
NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 provides common rules, gives suggestions and requirements to select qualified steel materials, that served in equipment used in oil and gas production, and in natural gas sweentening plants in H2S-containing environments. Where if such equipment failed could make a risk to human health and safety, and damage to the environment.
It is also a federal standard in US as recognized as ISO 15156, for Petroleum and natural gas industries that materials applied in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production.
This standard NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 addresses all mechanisms of cracking that can be caused by H2S, including below cracking conditions.
Sulfide stress cracking (SSC)
Stress corrosion cracking
Soft zone cracking
Stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking
Galvanically induced hydrogen stress cracking
How to select material
Steel materials that selected or qualified using NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 are resistant to cracking in defined H2S-Containing environments in oil and gas production, but are not nesessarily immune under all service conditions.
It has been taken as the instructions for selecting the qualified material of carbon and low-alloy steels, corrosion resistant alloy steels and other alloy materials that against in the H2S contained environments. Meanwhile, the standard also suitable for API, ASTM, ASME and ANSI etc.,
(In some cases, NACE pipe is also equivalent to sour service pipe, that applied in H2S environments.)
Equipment that applied with NACE MR0175
We know that there are a lot of equipment applied with NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 standard, mostly in oil and gas drilling, construction, lifting activities.
For example drilling as drill bits; Subface equipment like sucker rods pumps and sucker rods, electric submersible pumps, and other artificial lift equipment;
Sour water handling equipment, natural gas treatment plants.
And most important, steel pipe and fittings that for transportation pipelines of oil and gas, liquids, and multiphase fluids.
This is something we are going to talk about.
NACE Carbon Steel Pipes Related
Carbon and alloy steel containing up to carbon and up to manganese and residual quantities of other elements, except those intentionally added in specific quantities for deoxidation (usually silicon and/or aluminum)
In standard NACE MR0175 carbon steel pipes and fittings material used in petroleum industry usually contain carbon less than 0.8%.
Carbon and low alloy steels includes plate, pipe, pipe fitting that complied with NACE MR0175, with stated exceptions, further SSC testing is not required. Nevertheless, any SSC testing that forms part of a materials manufacturing specification shall be carried out successfully and the results reported.
Please note, the carbon and alloy steel pipes and fittings described/listed in previously NACE MR0175 (all versions) were identified by extensive correlations of filed failures/successes and laboratory data. The hardness limit of HRC 22 applied to most carbon and low alloy steels was based upon correlations of heat treatment, chemical composition, hardness and failure experience. The higher hardness limits for the chromium-molybdenum steels were based upon similar considerations.
Carbon Steel Pipe Standards Refer NACE
NACE MR0175 standard includes below standard steel pipes.
API 5L Seamless Grade B to X42, to X65
ASTM A53 Pipe
ASTM A106 Grade B, A, and C
ATSM A333 Grade 1 and 6
ASTM A524 Grade 1 and 2
ASTM A 381 Class 1 Y35 and to Y65
ISO 3183-3 Grade L245 to L450
Casing and Tubing from API 5CT J55/K55 to T95
NACE MR0175 Pipe and Fittings
Steel pipe and related fittings which are made from the NACE material (complied with NACE MR 0175 or ISO 15156 standard). We call them NACE pipe, or NACE pipe fittings.
Therefore, these products are specially used in the oil and gas environments that contain the H2S etc corrosive chemicals.
For carbon and alloy steel pipes, NACE MR0175 has limits for content Sulfur (S ≤ 0.002%), Phosphorus (P ≤ 0.020%) and Carbon (C ≤ 0.10%).
Mechanical properties of tensile strength, and yield strength is same with general pipes referred to corresponding standards.
NACE Test Methods
For sour service steel pipe, plate, fittings, commonly there are two test methods referred NACE. HIC and SSC.
HIC is Hydrogen Induced Cracking. HIC test is a mandatory test for NACE pipe and fittings. But if there is certificate to proof the material (Raw material for making pipes or fittings) comply to NACE MR0175, then there is no need to do this test again.
SSC is Sulfide Stress Cracking. SSC test is a long time lasting experiment. The test is specially to alloy steel, to put test material in corrosion environment plus with constant pulling force (Under situation of working force and metal inside force). In these two factors (Corrosion + Force) affects, material havs the brittle rupture. So this is SSC cracking.
(SSC cracking is one of the most harmful corrosion types, during corrosion, if there is any small cracks, the broken speed is far more soon than other type of corrosion. So SSC corrosion is an “Corrosion Disaster”. This happened in Bridge damage, Airplane accidents, boiler tank explosion. These are bring big loss for people’s life and property. Other than this, power station, Ship, boiler tank, petroleum industries all happened SSC accidents.)
NACE MR0175 pipe and fittings Applications
The material shall be used in water-containing liquid and media which include all kinds of gas, or H2S containing crude oil, the H2S absolute partial pressure ≥0.0003 Mpa (0.05 psia).
On the other hand, under these conditions there is no need apply to MR0175. (It’s up to users.)
a. Low pressure gas: the total pressure is lower than 0.4 MPa (65 psia).
b. Low pressure gas and oil multi phases media: the total pressure is lower than 1.83 MPa.
MR0175 standards of general material requirements for selecting of cracking-resistant material, cracking-resistant carbon and low-alloys steels, cast irons, cracking-resistant alloys and other alloys. And details requirements for H2S containing equipment.
SSC Cracking factors
Sulfide Stress cracking affected by following factors:
1) Subjected by chemical ingredients, hot treatment and micro structural etc. Influences metallurgy conditions and strength.
2) Hydrogen iron concentration in aqueous phase (Ph index)
3) H2S partial pressure, that is H2S concentration and the overall absolute pressure ratio.
4) Total tensile stress
6) Exposure time to acid environment
7) Power storage effect
8) Chloride or other halide ions concentration
9) Oxidizing agent
10) Non-secondary fluid (including fluid used for acid excitation and packers)
As a matter of fact,
Pipe corrosion speed also influenced by cold working of metal.
Although steel pipes, pipe fittings, production and equipment meets the standard NACE MR 0175, have the function of anti-H2S corrosion. But in case unsuitable design, manufacturing, installation, material’s choosing and processing etc, all these factor could leading corrosion-resistant materials to sensitivity.